Strategies for minimizing NSAIDs side effects
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. These NSAIDs are mainly used for reducing pain, fever and inflammation.
There are three main categories of NSAIDs, including:
salicylates traditional NSAIDs COX-2 selective inhibitors
The most commonly used traditional NSAIDs include:
Aspirin Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Motrin IB) Naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve) Nabumetone (Relafen)
How do they work?
The NSAIDs work by hindering the main function of an enzyme. An enzyme is basically a protein that triggers changes in the body. Known as COX (cyclooxygenase), this enzyme has two forms, COX-1 and COX-2.
While COX-1 protects the stomach lining from harsh acids and digestive chemicals, it also helps in maintaining the kidney function. On the other hand, COX-2 is produced when the joints are injured or inflamed.
NSAIDs – Side Effects
The traditional NSAIDs tend to block the actions of both, COX-1 and COX-2. Therefore, the chances of stomach disorders and bleeding also increase considerably.
The side effects of NSAIDs can be divided into common, occasional and rare. Here we list the main amongst them.
Common side effects
These are quite common and do not require medical intervention unless they become severe.
Indigestion Heartburn Nausea Diarrhea Sudden weight gain
Ankle swelling Headache Dizziness Vertigo Tinnitus Unusual bruising or bleeding Skin rashes Wheezing Hives High blood pressure
Immediate medical help should be sought if any of these are witnessed.
Stomach cramps Blood vomits Bloody or black, tar-like stools
Strategies to minimize NSAID side effects
In this section, we discuss some of the main strategies to minimize the side effects of NSAIDs and enhance their therapeutic effect.
NSAIDs and gastrointestinal ulcers
Patients with the following conditions are at a greater risk of developing NSAID-related gastrointestinal ulcers. Hence, the NSAIDs should be administered with proper precaution in these cases.
Advanced age (more than 75 years of age) History of ulcers Concurrent use of corticosteroids or anti-coagulants Higher dosage of NSAIDs Use of multiple NSAIDs A serious underlying disease
Experts suggest using gastro protective agents (such as acid suppressants like omeprazole, or prostaglandins analogues such as misoprostol) to reduce the risk of stomach problems. These agents mainly include high dose H2 blockers, proton-pump inhibitors and oral prostaglandin analogs.
Method of administration
Both the timings and method of administering NSAIDs should be altered to minimize the negative impact of NSAIDs. You can make variations between taking the NSAIDs by injections, orally or through creams and gels.
Ideally, it is advisable to follow the below:
Take oral NSAIDs with or after food or with milk to help minimize the stomach side effects. Avoid alcohol to minimize the risk of stomach irritation Have a lot of water and fluids when taking NSAIDs Avoid high-caloric foods
Before an NSAID is administered, it is important to take into the consideration the relevant factors regarding the patient’s health, medical history and other facts. The most important amongst these are:
Age Alcohol Tolerance levels General health Concurrent medication (steroids, anti-coagulants)
Follow the rules
One of the most important factors is to follow the rules of medication. It is important to carefully read the label warnings and other dosage and administering instructions on the packaging. The packaging insert will also carry a detailed note on the possible side effects and consequences.
Also, never take the NSAIDs beyond the prescribed quantity. Chemicals in these drugs can lead to serious consequences when taken in wrong quantities and can even prove fatal in some cases.
Infants above 6 months of age can be given a small dosage of ibuprofen in the liquid form. However, proper medical advice and the infant’s condition needs to be taken into consideration.
Upon the occurrence of any of the serious side effects, immediately discontinue the medication and seek medical help.
Use simple analgesics in place of NSAIDs, wherever possible Take only one NSAID at a time Opt for intra-articular corticosteroids, especially when the disease in localized Do not take NSAIDs if you are taking anti-coagulants or corticosteroids